Labour Force Survey, 2018
hdl:11272/10575UNF:5:bU06fOxKlKlpb6nBqTlXMQ==
Version: 9 – Released: Fri Oct 05 09:24:00 PDT 2018
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TitleLabour Force Survey, 2018
Study Global IDhdl:11272/10575
Other IDStatistics Canada: 71-543-G
ProducerStatistics Canada (Statcan)
Production DateFebruary 09, 2018
Production PlaceOttawa
DistributorStatistics Canada (Statcan)
Deposit DateFebruary 13, 2018
SeriesLFS, Labour Force Survey
Versionv1.0, February 09, 2018
Original Dataverse
Description and Scope
Description

LFS data are used to produce the well-known unemployment rate as well as other standard labour market indicators such as the employment rate and the participation rate. The LFS also provides employment estimates by industry, occupation, public and private sector, hours worked and much more, all cross-classifiable by a variety of demographic characteristics. Estimates are produced for Canada, the provinces, the territories and a large number of sub-provincial regions. For employees, data on wage rates, union status, job permanency and establishment size are also produced.

These data are used by different levels of government for evaluation and planning of employment programs in Canada. Regional unemployment rates are used by Employment and Social Development Canada to determine eligibility, level and duration of insurance benefits for persons living within a particular employment insurance region. The data are also used by labour market analysts, economists, consultants, planners, forecasters and academics in both the private and public sector.

Description DateFebruary 13, 2018
KeywordsCountry::Canada (ACV); Labour (ACV)
Related MaterialTogether, five surveys tell a more complete story of current labour market events. These surveys are: the Labour Force Survey (LFS, record number 3701), the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH, record number 2612), Employment Insurance Statistics (EIS, record number 2604), Job Vacancy Statistics (JVS, record number 5202), and the Job Vacancy and Wage Survey (JVWS, record number 5217). Every month, the LFS provides timely data on the labour market, including the unemployment rate and demographic analysis. Later on, the SEPH report shows greater detail on non-farm industry employment and earnings. EIS provides substantial detail on Employment Insurance benefits by geography, socio-demographics and former occupation. JVS (as part of SEPH) offers monthly information on labour demand by reporting on the number of job vacancies by industry. JVWS provides information on job vacancies (quarterly) and wages (annually) by occupation and economic region.
Time Period CoveredJanuary, 2018 - December, 2018
Date of CollectionJanuary, 2018 - December, 2018
Country/NationCanada (CA)
Geographic CoverageCanada (CA)
Geographic UnitCanada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs)
Geographic BoundingWest Bounding Longitude: -141.018 East Bounding Longitude: -52.6194 North Bounding Latitude: 83.1355 South Bounding Latitude: 41.6814
Unit of AnalysisIndividuals
UniverseThe target population is the non-institutionalised population 15 years of age and over. The survey is conducted nationwide, in both the provinces and the territories. Excluded from the survey's coverage are: persons living on reserves and other Aboriginal settlements in the provinces; full-time members of the Canadian Armed Forces, the institutionalized population, and households in extremely remote areas with very low population density. These groups together represent an exclusion of less than 2% of the Canadian population aged 15 and over.
Kind of DataSurvey data
Data Collection / Methodology
Time MethodCross-sectional
Data CollectorStatistics Canada
FrequencyMonthly
Sampling Procedure

This is a sample survey with a cross-sectional design.

The LFS uses a probability sample that is based on a stratified multi-stage design. Each province is divided into large geographic stratum. The first stage of sampling consists of selecting smaller geographic areas, called clusters, from within each stratum. The second stage of sampling consists of selecting dwellings from within each selected cluster.

The LFS uses a rotating panel sample design so that selected dwellings remain in the LFS sample for six consecutive months. Each month about one-sixth of the LFS sampled dwellings are in their first month of the survey, one-sixth are in their second month of the survey, and so on. One feature of the LFS sample design is that each of the six rotation groups can be used as a representative sample by itself.

Within selected dwellings, basic demographic information is collected for all household members. Labour force information is collected for all civilian household members who are aged 15 and over.

The sample is allocated to provinces and to strata within provinces in the way that best meets the need for reliable estimates at various geographic levels.

Recently, the monthly LFS sample size has been approximately 56,000 households, resulting in the collection of labour market information for approximately 100,000 individuals. It should be noted that the LFS sample size is subject to change from time to time in order to meet data quality or budget requirements.

Collection Mode

Responding to this survey is mandatory.

Data are collected directly from survey respondents.

Responses to survey questions are captured directly by the interviewer at the time of the interview, using a computerized questionnaire on a laptop or desktop computer. The response data are encrypted to ensure confidentiality and sent electronically to appropriate Statistics Canada Regional Office. From there, they are transmitted over a secure line to head office in Ottawa for further processing.

LFS interviews are conducted by telephone in English or French by interviewers working out of a regional office CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interview) site or by personal visit from a field interviewer.

All LFS interviewers are under the supervision of senior interviewers who are responsible for ensuring that their staff are familiar with survey concepts and procedures, as well as periodically monitoring their interviews.

Information about all household members is usually obtained from one knowledgeable household member. Such ‘proxy’ reporting accounts for approximately 65% of the information collected.

Respondents are in the survey for six months. The birth interview takes approximately 20 minutes to complete. The subsequent five interviews take about 10 to 12 minutes to complete.

Type of Research InstrumentStructured
Characteristic of Sources Noted

Most estimates associated with the labour market are subject to seasonal variation; that is, annually-recurring fluctuations attributable to climate and regular institutional events such as vacations and holiday seasons. Seasonal adjustment is used to remove seasonal variations from almost 3,000 series in the LFS in order to facilitate analysis of short-term change for major indicators such as employment and unemployment by age and sex, employment by industry and employment by class of worker (public and private employees or self-employed). Many of these indicators are seasonally adjusted at national and provincial levels. Main labour force status estimates are also seasonally adjusted for census metropolitan areas (CMAs), and published as three-month moving averages to reduce irregular movements caused by relatively small sample sizes. The method being used for seasonal adjustment is X-12-ARIMA.

At the start of each year, the Labour Force Survey revises its estimates for the previous three years, using the latest seasonal factors.

Adjustments are also made to LFS data every five years after new population estimates become available following the most recent census. At that time, all LFS data back to the previous census is re-weighted using the new population estimates (since the new population estimates will cover the inter-censal period between the two most recent censuses), and all corresponding historical LFS estimates are revised. Generally, the introduction of the latest classification systems for industry, occupation and geography, along with other changes, occur at this time.

As of January 2015, LFS estimates have been adjusted to reflect population counts from the 2011 Census, adjusted for net undercoverage, with revisions going back to 2001. For more information, see “The 2015 Revisions of the Labour Force Survey (LFS)” (71F0031X).

Weighting

The sample data are weighted to enable tabulations of estimates at national, provincial, and sub-provincial levels of aggregation.

The sample design determines a certain number of weighting factors to be used in the calculation of the individual weights. The main component is the inverse of the probability of selection, known as the basic weight. For example, in an area where 2% of the households are sampled, each household would be assigned a basic weight of 1/.02=50. The basic weight is then adjusted for any sub-sampling due to growth that may have occurred in the area. This weight is then adjusted for non-response and coverage error.

In the LFS, some survey non-response is compensated for by imputation: carry forward, substitution or donor imputation methods. Any remaining non-response is accounted for by adjusting the weights for the responding households in the same area. This non-response adjustment assumes that the characteristics of the responding households are not significantly different from the non-responding households.

The weights derived after the non-response adjustments are called the subweights. The final adjustment to the weight is made to correct for coverage errors. The subweights are adjusted so that the survey estimates of population conform to control totals. These final weights are used in the LFS tabulations.

Cleaning Operations

Some editing is done directly at the time of interview. Where the information entered is out of range (too large or too small) of expected values or inconsistent with previous entries, the interviewer is prompted, through message screens on the computer, to modify the information. However, interviewers have the option of bypassing the edits or skipping questions if the respondent does not know the answer or refuses to answer. Therefore, the response data are subjected to further edit and imputation processes once they arrive at head office.

The editing and imputation phases of processing involve the identification of logically inconsistent or missing information items and the modification of such data. Since the true value of each entry on the questionnaire is not known, the identification of errors can be done only through recognition of obvious inconsistencies (for example, a 15-year-old respondent who is recorded as having last worked in 1940). If a value is suspicious but reasonable, the value will find its way into the monthly statistics. For that reason, emphasis must be placed on quality controls and interviewer training to ensure errors are both minimal in number and non-systematic in nature.

Response Rate Non-response to the LFS tends to average about 10% of eligible households.
Estimates of Sampling Error

Since the LFS is a sample survey, all estimates are subject to both sampling and non-sampling errors.

Non-sampling errors can arise at any stage of the collection and processing of the survey data. These include coverage errors, non-response errors, response errors, interviewer errors, coding errors, and other types of processing errors.

Non-response to the LFS tends to average about 10% of eligible households. Interviewers are instructed to make all reasonable attempts to obtain LFS interviews with members of eligible households. Each month, after all attempts to obtain interviews have been made, a small number of non-responding households remain. A weight adjustment is applied to account for non-responding households.

Sampling errors associated with survey estimates are measured using coefficients of variation for LFS estimates as a function of the standard error and the size of the estimate.

Other Forms of Data Appraisal

Each month, the Labour Force Survey indicators that are released are the most timely.

Any validation of LFS data with other sources involves caution. However, selected data from the LFS are regularly compared to similar data from the Survey of Employment, Payrolls and Hours (SEPH), Employment Insurance Statistics and the census. Economists working with the LFS often compare Gross Domestic Product (GDP) data with that of the LFS to see if labour market trends are in line with general economic performance. Other comparisons include:

Manufacturing shipment data and LFS manufacturing employment; Dwelling starts, building permits and construction employment; Retail and wholesale sales and trade employment.

In addition, the LFS is put through a rigorous series of activities to ensure that the estimates are of acceptable quality.

Data Availability
Number of Files 22
Terms of Use
Special PermissionsResource LICENSED for Abacus institutions.
Conditions

Licence agreement for Data from Statistics Canada, including Public Use Microdata Files, Postal Code products and the CIHI Discharge Abstracts Database.

DEFINITION

1. "Microdata file" means a non-identifiable data set containing characteristics pertaining to surveyed units as described in section 2.

DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCT

2. The Microdata file referred to in this Agreement relates to Public Use Microdata Files (PUMF) in the DLI collection.

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3.(1) The Licensee hereby nominates the DLI contact as the contact person to whom all further communication shall be addressed by Statistics Canada on any matter concerning this Agreement.

3.(2) The Licensee hereby nominates the DLI contact as the designated custodian of the Microdata file with responsibility for ensuring its proper use and custody pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

DELIVERY OF PRODUCT

4. Upon signature of this Agreement, Statistics Canada shall provide to the Licensee access to the Microdata file collection and one copy of the related documentation.

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5. The Microdata files and related documentation shall at all times be and remain the sole and exclusive property of Statistics Canada, it being mutually agreed that this Agreement involves a licence for the use of the Microdata files and related documentation and that nothing contained herein shall be deemed to convey any title or ownership interest in the Microdata files or the related documentation to the Licensee.

USE OF MICRODATA

6.(1) Statistics Canada hereby grants to the Licensee a non-exclusive, non-assignable and non-transferable licence to use the Microdata files and related documentation for statistical and research purposes. The Microdata files shall not be used for any other purposes without the prior written consent of Statistics Canada.

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This analysis is based on the Statistics Canada (Name of database and/or microdata file) (Reference Year). All computations, use and interpretation of these data are entirely that of (Name of Author(s) or Licensee).

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9. Statistics Canada may modify this agreement at any time, and such modifications shall be effective immediately upon posting of the modified agreement on the Statistics Canada Website..

TERM

10. This Agreement comes into force when signed by both Parties and shall continue in force until terminated in accordance herewith.

TERMINATION

11.(1) Statistics Canada may, by providing ten days written notice to the Licensee, terminate this Agreement if the Licensee fails to comply with any of the terms of this Agreement and to remedy such breach within the notice period.

11.(2) In the event of termination, the Licensee must immediately return the Microdata files to Statistics Canada, or destroy them and certify this destruction in writing to Statistics Canada.

12. Any notice to be given to Statistics Canada or the Licensee shall be in writing and sent by registered mail, electronic mail or facsimile.

13.Sections 7 and 9 hereof survive the termination of this Agreement pursuant to section 12.

AMENDMENT

14. No amendment to this Agreement shall be valid unless it is reduced to writing and signed by the Parties hereto.

ENTIRE AGREEMENT

15. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between Statistics Canada and the Licensee with respect to the Licensee’s right to use the Microdata files.

APPROPRIATE LAW

16. This Agreement shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of the province of Ontario and the laws of Canada applicable therein. The parties hereby attorn to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Canada..


APPENDIX II

End-use Licence Agreement for Postal CodeOM Conversion File, Postal Codes OM by Federal Ridings File and Postal CodeOM Conversion File Plus (“data product”)

The Government of Canada (Statistics Canada) is the owner or a licensee of all intellectual property rights in this data product. With your payment of the requisite fee, you (hereinafter referred to as 'the Licensee') are granted a non-exclusive, non-assignable and non-transferable licence to use this data product subject to the terms below. This licence is not a sale of any or all of the rights of the owner(s). The data product includes information taken with permission from © Canada Post Corporation. All rights reserved. Information taken with permission from Canada Post Corporation does not form part of the Government of Canada open data portal.

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1. The Licensee shall not lend, rent, lease, sublicense, distribute, make public, transfer or sell any part of the data product nor any right granted under this agreement to any person outside the licensed organization or to any other organization.

2. The Licensee shall not disassemble, decompile or in any way attempt to reverse engineer any part of the data product.

3. The Licensee shall not use any part of the data product to develop or derive any other data product or data service for external distribution or commercial sale.

4. The Licensee shall not use the data product other than for the purpose of matching postal codeOM data to geography in accordance with Appendix ‘A’. 5. The Licensee shall not use the data product for the following mail preparation purposes:

(i) addressing mail;

(ii) presorting addressed mail;

(iii) preparing unaddressed mail by householder count for delivery

6. The Licensee agrees not to merge or link the data product with any other databases in such a fashion that gives the appearance that the Licensee may have received, or had access to, information held by Statistics Canada about any identifiable individual, family, household, organization or business.

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Source: (or Adapted from) Statistics Canada (Select either Postal Code Conversion File or Postal Codes by Federal Ridings File and Postal Code Conversion File Plus (reference date) which is based on data licensed from Canada Post Corporation.

8. The Licensee may publish an extract of up to 1% of the data product pursuant to Appendix ‘A’. This permission includes the use of the extracted data in support of analyses and in reporting of results and conclusions. The Licensee shall obtain approval from Statistics Canada before publishing extract of the data product in excess of 1%.

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License Agreement for the Disc harge Abstract Database (DAD) Research Analytic Files from the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI)

DESCRIPTION OF PRODUCT

1. The Discharge Abstract Database (DAD) Research Analytic Files referred to in this Agreement relate to research analytic files (‘clinical’ and ‘geographic’) that are de- identified samples fromCIHI’s Discharge Abstract Database (sampled from fiscal years 2009–2010 and 2010–2011) contained in the DLI Collection (the “CIHI Files”).”

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2.(1) The Licensee hereby nominates the DLI contact as the contact person to whom all further communication shall be addressed by Statistics Canada or CIHI on any matter concerning this Agreement.

2.(2) The Licensee hereby nominates the DLI contact as the designated custodian of the CIHI Files with responsibility for ensuring their proper use and custody pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.

DELIVERY OF PRODUCT

3.Upon signature of this Agreement, Statistics Canada shall provide to the Licensee access to the CIHI Files and one copy of the related documentation.

OWNERSHIP

4.The CIHI Files and related documentation shall at all times be and remain the sole and exclusive property of CIHI, it being mutually agreed that this Agreement involves a limited licence for the use of the CIHI Files and related documentation and that nothing contained herein shall be deemed to convey any title or ownership interest in the CIHI Files or the related documentation to the Licensee.

USE OF CIHI FILES

5.(1) Statistics Canada hereby grants to the Licensee a non-exclusive, non-assignable and non-transferable limited licence to use the CIHI Files and related documentation for statistical and research purposes. The CIHI Files and related documentation shall not be used for any other purposes without the prior written consent of CIHI.

5.(2) Use of the CIHI Files and related documentation is limited to the Licensee. The CIHI Files and related documentation cannot be reproduced or transmitted to any person or organization outside of the Licensee’s or ganization.

5.(3) The Licensee shall not merge or link the records on the CIHI Files with any other databases for the purpose of attempting to identify an individual person, business or organization.

5.(4) The Licensee shall not present information from the CIHI Files in such a manner that gives the appearance that the Licensee may have received, or had access to, information held by CIHI about any identifiable person, business or organization.

5.(5) The Licensee shall not disassemble, decompile or in any way attempt to reverse engineer any software provided as part of the CIHI Files.

NO WARRANTY AND NO LIABILITY

6.The CIHI Files are licenced ‘as-is,’ and CIHI makes no representation or warranties whatsoever with respect to the CIHI Files, whether express or implied, in relation to the CIHI Files and expressly disclaims any implied warranty or merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose of the CIHI Files.

The Canadian Institute for Health Information or any of its officials employees, agents, successors and Assigns shall not be liable for any errors or omissions in the CIHI Files and shall not, under any circumstances, be liable for any direct, indirect, special, incidental, consequential, or other loss injury, damage, however caused, that you may suffer at any time by reason of your possession, access to or use of the CIHI Files arising out of the exercise of your rights or the fulfilment of your obligations under this agreement.

PUBLICATION BY THE LICENSEE

7. In any publication of any information based on the CIHI Files, the Licensee shall use the following form of accreditation: “Parts of this material are based on the Canadian Institute for Health Information Discharge Abstract Database Research Analytic Files(sampled from fiscal years 2009 – 2010 and 2010 – 2011). However the analysis, conclusions, opinions and statements expressed herein are those of the author(s) and not those of the Canadian Institute for Health Information.”

CONDITION OF USE

8. Statistics Canada may modify this agreement at any time with respect to the Licensee’s right to use the CIHI Files and related documentation and such modifications shall be effective immediately upon posting of the modified agreement on the Statistics Canada Website.

TERM

9. This Agreement com es into force when signed by both Parties and shall continue in force until terminated in accordance herewith.

TERMINATION

10.(1) Statistics Canada may, by providing ten days written notice to the Licensee, terminate this Agreement if the Licensee fails to comply with any of the terms of this Agreement and to remedy such breach within the notice period.

10.(2) In the event of termination, the Licensee must immediately return the CIHI Files and related documentation to Statistics Canada, or destroy them an d certify this destruction in writing to Statistics Canada.

11. Any notice to be given to Statistics Canada or the Licensee shall be in writing and sent by registered mail, electronic mail or facsimile.

12. Sections 4, 6 and 8 hereof survive the termination of this Agreement pursuant to Section 11.

AMENDMENT

13. No amendment to this Agreement shall be valid unless it is reduced to writing and signed by the Parties hereto.

ENTIRE AGREEMENT

14. This Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between Statistics Canada and the Licensee with respect to the Licensee’s right to use the CIHI Files and related documentation.

APPROPRIATE LAW

15.This Agreement shall be governed and construed in accordance with the laws of the province of Ontario and the laws of Canada applicable therein. The parties hereby attorn to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Canada.


Appendix A – Approved Postal Code Data Matching Uses for DLI Accredited Canadian Post Secondary Institution

Matching Postal Code data to geography for:

  • Teaching and learning purposes.

    E.g.: Students can download PCCF on their laptop to do their assignments. This includes projects, maps, analytical papers, etc. Faculty can download and use the PCCF in teaching exercises.
  • Research purposes

    E.g.: Can be used in analysis to write articles that are published in journals. The data is not shared but the results are published. This also includes thesis for Masters or Doctorate where results are required to be public.
  • Planning purposes – where the institution can use the information in planning student recruitment activities or find out where these students are coming from.

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